Which one is better and in which use cases?
Here is an overview of Data-Centric Architecture and Application-Centric Architecture for Security:
Protects the data itself, regardless of where it is stored or processed.
Protects the applications that access and process data
They say the best security architecture would depend on an organization's needs. If your organization requires protecting sensitive data regardless of where it is stored or processed, then a data-centric architecture may be a good choice. If your organization needs a simpler and more manageable security solution, you may be better off with an application-centric architecture.